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Education to partnership and parenthood in elementary and secondary schools, inquiry into attitudes, value orientation and perception of gender stereotypes of adolescents

25. 10. 2011

Identification sheet of the survey No 007

Education to partnership and parenthood in elementary and secondary schools, inquiry into attitudes, value orientation and perception of gender stereotypes of adolescents

Author survey: Morvayová Daniela, Mgr., Gregussová Monika, Mgr., Research Institute for Child Psychology and Patopsychology, Trnavská cesta 112, Bratislava
Period of data collection: June 2004- June 2006
Data collection:  Research Institute for Child Psychology and Patopsychology, Trnavská cesta 112, Bratislava

 

Abstract:

The aim of our survey was to map the ideas of adolescents about male and female roles, about functioning of partnership, sexuality and find out the level of knowledge about birth control and danger of sexual abuse. Obtained knowledge was supposed to help at the creation of a prevention programme:  education to partnership and sexuality of elementary school pupils in the 9th year that was carried out in two experimental classes. Survey was performed in Bratislava.

Questions from the survey: 

  1.  What will be the differences between boys and girls in knowledge, attitudes and views on partnership and sexuality?  
  2.  Would the programme influence the growth of information and change attitudes in areas of partnership, birth control and sexual abuse risk?
  3.  Would the level of information, attitudes and views change more in the experimental group than in the control group?
  4.  Will adolescents be able to presents their views and attitudes in a questionnaire more open and in more detail after the end of the programme?

Programme comprised 10 sessions with the following subject areas - male and female stereotypes, gender identity, selection of a partner, communication and conflict solution, development of partnerships, sexuality as a component of a partnership, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and birth control, prevention of violence and sexual abuse.

Sample:  Our sample comprised pupils of the 9th year of the elementary school; experimental group, in which the prevention programme had been realised and a control group, where the mentioned programme had not been performed. Experimental group consisted of two classes of an elementary school (altogether 34 pupils; 17 girls and 17 boys) and control group consisted of three classes of an elementary school in Bratislava (altogether 78 pupils; 46 girls and 32 boys).  The age of the respondents was between 14 and 15.  

Methodology: Attitudes, knowledge and views of the adolescents were investigated by using a questionnaire.

Questionnaire comprised three parts: 

- Unfinished sentences: In the first part, respondents had to complete ten sentences

- Myths and truths: Respondents did not evaluate the truthfulness of the statements, but whether they agree or disagree.

- Free question: Questionnaire was concluded by three questions that should have been freely answered by the pupils.

Data evaluation: Questionnaire was given to respondents of two groups; the experimental and the control group and before and after the realisation of the programme. Obtained data was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively and in concordance with the aims of the survey.

Data processing: When processing the data we made use of a qualitative content analysis and of a quantitative processing using the SPSS.

 

Results of the survey:

1. Results of the qualitative analysis of unfinished sentences

In 2004 prior to the realization of the prevention programme we found out that adolescents have stereotyped ideas about gender roles: A man should be strong, dominant and enterprising. He should be able to assert himself in a society and mainly by his intelligence, skills and assertiveness. Adolescents regard sexual activity and changing of partners as one of the criteria for masculinity. The most frequent criterion of feminineness was appearance and body care. Other desired attributes were understanding, perceptiveness and care. Her role was also to re-educate the man. She should not be a career type. 

2. Results of statistical processing of answers from the questionnaire

Prior to the realization of the programme we did not discover any statistically significant difference in the level of knowledge about the functioning of partnership, sexuality, birth control and sexual abuse between the experimental and the control group. In 2004 the difference between the experimental and the control group was of no statistic importance (p = 0,588), however in 2005 experimental group differed from the control group - rate of the overall score was higher and very significantly from statistic point of view (p = 0,035). Before realizing the programme adolescent in both groups had very naïve ideas about functioning of the partnership and unrealistic expectations from the partner. As far as knowledge of sexuality and birth control is concerned we discovered that adolescents are quite well informed, girls having more information in this area than boys. Adolescents lack information about the risk of sexual abuse. The experimental group and mainly boys had considerable improved their level of information about possibilities of birth control. Belief of adolescents of romantically functioning relationships had been weakened and level of information of possible sexual abuse had increased.

 

Recommendations:

On the basis of tentative results of the qualitative analysis we can state that we were able to influence the experimental group in the following:

- gender stereotypes of boys and girls, negative attitudes toward the opposite gender, 

- criteria for the selection of a partner - they think more about character features that the partner should have and appearance is not as important anymore,

- romantic ideas about relationship are not accepted to such extent, respondents revalue critically and are conscious of the fact that both partners have to put effort into a functioning partnership,

- mainly boys had improved their level of information about the possibilities of birth control 

- girls changed their attitude to sex, level of information about risks of sexual abuse had increased.

 

Publications: 

Morvayová, D., Gregussová, M. 2004. Programme design Partnership and sexuality of elementary school pupils of the 9th year. In: TESAŘ, M. (Ed.) 40 years of research of psychic development of children and youth, current issues and perspectives in an unified Europe.. Bratislava VÚDPaP (Research Institute for Child Psychology and Patopsychology), 2004, CD.

Gregussová, M., Morvayová, D. 2005. Notion of the pupils of the 8th year about sexually transmitted diseases, partnership and sexuality. In: Heller, D., Procházková, J., Kouřilová, M.:  Collective volume from the conference 22nd psychology days 2004: „World of women and world of men. Polarity and mutual enrichment." Philosophical Faculty of the Palacky University (PU), Olomouc and CMPS (Czech-Moravian Psychological Society), PU Olomouc, 2005. 1st edition.  ISBN 80-244-1059-1. CD-ROM.

Morvayová, D., Gregussová, M. 2005. Programme Partnership and sexuality - evaluation of effect. In: „Psychology for life - or the necessity of metanoia". 23rd Psychology days. 2005: Collective volume. SPS (Slovak Psychological Society) at the Academy of Sciences  Bratislava, 2005. ISBN 80-967211-7-3.

 

Quotation: Education to partnership and parenthood in elementary and secondary schools, inquiry into attitudes, value orientation and perception of gender stereotypes of adolescents. Research Institutes for Child Psychology and Patopsychology, Bratislava





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